Plant Families: quick hour revision. Brassicaceae, Leguminaceae, Solanaceae, Compositae, Poceae

Plant families- quick revision notes, Brassicaseae, Solanaceae, Leguminaceae, Compositeae, Poaceae, Liliaceae plant families list plant families are characterised on the basis of plant families classification plant families with examples plant families and their characteristics plant families botany plant families characteristics

Family: Brassicaceae or Cruciferae

Morphology: They are hairy herbs with pungent smell of sulphur due to sulphur containing glucoside compound.
Inflorescence: Racemose or corymbose raceme (mustard) or corymb (Iberis)
Flower: Ebracteate, pedicillate, tetramerous, polypetalous with cruciform corolla with anguiculate petal.
Androcium: Stamen 6, tetradynamous with 2+4 arrangement (2 outer short, 4 inner taller).
Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, hypogynous, superior ovary with parietal placentation.
✒ Ovary: Unilocular at first but become bilocular later due to formation of false septum called replum.
Fruits: Siliqua or silicula (Iberis, Capsella)
Floral formula: Ebr. Ebrl. ⊕ ⚥ K2+2 C4 A2+4 G(2)


Economic important plants

1. Brassica campestris (mustard)
2. Brassica rapa (Turnip)
3. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Cauliflower)
4. Brassica oleraceae var. capitata (Cabbage)
5. Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd-purse)
6. Iberis amara (Candytuft)
7. Brassica juncea
8. Cherianthus cheiri (Wall flower)
9. Raphanus sativus (Radish)
10. Nasturtium officinale (Water cress)
11. Rorippa montana (Water cress)
12. Lepidium sativum (Garden cress)



Family: Solanaceceae

Morphology: Bicolateral vascular bundles in stem.
Flower: Pentamerous, infundibulum,
Petal: gamopetalous,
Sepal: gamosepalous, hypogynous flower with persistent calyx.
Androecium: Stamen 5, epipetalous with alternipetalous arrangement.
Gyanocium and Ovary: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary, bilocular ovary with axile placentation, swollen placenta, obliquely placed ovary. Due to turning of posterior carpel to right and anterior carpel to left (oblique ovary) ovary may be slightly zygomorphic.
Fruit: Berry or capsule fruit.
Floral formula: Ebr. brl. ⊕ ⚥ K(5) C(5) A5 G(2)


Economic important plants

1. Solanum tuberosum (Potato)
2. Solonum melongena (brinjal)
3. Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade)
4. Atropa belladonna (Belladonna)
5. Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato)
6. Capsicum annuum (Chilli)
7. Cestrum nocturnum (Night jasmine, Rat ki rani)
8. Datura metel (Dhatura, Thorn apple)
9. Nicotiana tobacum (Tobacco)



Family: Compositae

Morphology: Largest family of angiosperms, most advance and highly evolved family of dicot. Leaf and stem bears oil passages, oil ducts or milky latex.
Inflorescence: Head or capitulum. Capitulum is surrounded by involucres (modified bracts) protection.
Floret: two types: ray floret and disc floret
Capitulum are of two types.
๏ Homogamous (either one floret is present)
๏ Heterogamous (both florets are present).

Flower: Pentamerous, gamopetalous, sessile, epigynous flower, ligulate (ray) or tubular (disc) with persistent hairy calyx called pappus.
Stamen: Absent (ray floret, pistilate) or 5, epipetalous, syngenesious (disc floret).
Gyanoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, unilocular ovary with basal or apical placentation, inferior ovary or semi-inferior ovary.
Fruit: Cypsela with persistent hairy pappus (rarely pappus absent)

Floral formula:
ray floret : Br. % ♀ K2-5pappus C(2-5) A0 G(2)
disc floret : Br. ⊕ ⚥ K2-5pappus C(5) A(5) G(2)


Economic important plants

1. Helianthus annus (sunflower)
2. Tagetus patula (marigold)
3. Chrysanthemum cinarifolium (godawari)
4. Carthamus tinctorius (safflower, kusum)
5. Calendula officinale (Asarphi)
6. Artemisia vulgare (titepati)
7. Ageratina adenophorum (banmara)
8. Ambrosia artmisifolia (rag weed)
9. Zinnia elegans (liliput)



Family: Leguminoceae or Fabaceae

Sub family: Papilionaideae

Morphology: Root nodule is very common and symbiosis with Rhizobium.
Leaf: Pulvinus (swellon) leaf base, Alternate stipulate, leaf are simple or imparipinnate.
Calyx: Petamerous, gamosepalous and slightly persistent calyx.
Corolla: Polypetalous in descending imbricate(vexillary); 5 in number; 3types:
๏ 1 largest anterior= hood or standard
๏ 2 lateral = wing or alae
๏ 2 posterior = keel or carina
Ovary: Monocarpellary, Superior and unilocular ovary with marginal placentation. @MaLe.
Fruit: legumes or pods
Floral formula: Br. % ⚥ K(5) C1+2+(2) A1+(9) G1


Economic important plants

1. Pisum sativum (Pea)
2. Arachis hypogea (Ground nut)
3. Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea)
4. Glycine max (Soyabean)
5. Phaseolus mungo (Black gram)
6. Cicer arientinum (Chick pea, Chana)
7. Lens culinaris (Lentil)
8. Sesbania sesban (Dhaincha)
9. Butea monosperma (Flame of forest, Palans)
10. Dalbergia sissoo (Sissoo)



Family: Poaceae or Graminae

Morphology: Fibrous roots, terete and culm stem, sheathing leaf base with parallel veined lamina.
✒ Inflorescence: Spike or spike of spikelets .
Leaf: Sheathing leaf base and ligulate (membrancous outgrowth at leafy node).
✒ Flower: Trimerous, hypogynous, bisexual sometimes unisexual, without sepal and petal; perianth is present and called lodieules; also presence of bract called glumes (lemma and palea).
✒ Androecium: Stamen 3, rarely 6 (rice and bamboo), pendulous, versatile anther.
✒ Gynoecium and ovary: Monocarpellary, syncarpous, unilocular superior ovary (often tricarpellary and two abortive) with basal or apical placentation, plumose or hairy stigma and style bifid and hairy.
Fruit: Caryopsis
Floral formula: Br. % ⚥ P2 A3 G1


Economic important plants

1. Triticum aestivum (wheat)
2. Zea mays (maize)
3. Oryza sativa (rice)
4. Eleusine coracana (millet)
5. Avena sativa (oat)
6. Hordeum vulgare (barley)
7. Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)
8. Cyanodon dactylon (dubo grass)
9. Cymbopogon ciatrus (lemon grass)
10. Themeda gigantea (Amriso, broom)
11. Bambusa arundinaria (Bamboo)
12. Phragmites karka (Narkat)

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